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Types of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease (also known as periodontitis or gum disease), is a progressive condition and may lead to loss of tooth if not treated. Periodontal disease is responsible for tooth loss in many individuals and should be addressed properly.

Periodontal disease starts with toxins in plaque attacking the gingival or tissue around the teeth. This bacterium buries itself in the gum and proliferates rapidly, resulting in a bacterial infection. As the infection develops, it burrows further into the tissue, causing irritation and inflammation between the gums and teeth. The body responds by destroying the infected tissue, which is the reason for the receding appearance of the gums. The pocket left between the teeth continues to deepen and, if not treated, the tissue making up the jawbone will also recede, resulting in tooth loss.

Types of Periodontal Disease

Periodontal disease exists in various types, and they manifest in various forms. All need to be given immediate treatment by a periodontist to prevent the development and save the bone and gum tissue.

Some of the most common forms of periodontal disease and their treatments are as follows:


Gingivitis is known to be the most common and the mildest form of periodontitis. It is caused by the presence of toxins in plague. Some people are at a higher risk of having gingivitis. These people include women taking contraceptives, pregnant women, steroid users, those with controlled diabetes and people managing blood pressure and seizure using medication.

Treatment: Gingivitis can be reversed by combining professional cleaning with excellent home care. The dentist may cleanse the pockets of debris by carrying out deep scaling and root planing procedures. Any remaining bacteria may be killed by combining medicated mouthwashes and antibiotics.

Chronic Periodontal Disease

Chronic periodontitis is the most common of them all, and common with people above 45 years of age. Chronic periodontal disease causes the gum line to inflame, and it destroys the bone tissue and gingival. The teeth may appear to be growing in length when it is the gums that are actually receding.

Treatment: unlike gingivitis, it is impossible to completely cure chronic periodontal disease because there is no way to rebuild the supporting tissue. However, the dentist can use a combination of antimicrobial treatments, scaling and root planing to halt the progression of the disease. The periodontist can also carry out surgical treatments such as tissue grafts and pocket reduction surgery to strengthen the bone and improve the appearance of the oral cavity.

Aggressive Periodontal Disease

Aggressive periodontal disease causes the rapid loss of bone tissue and familial aggregation as well as the rapid loss of gum attachment. The disease itself is not different from chronic periodontitis; it just has a much faster progression. Smokers and people with a history of the disease in their family are at a higher risk of having aggressive periodontitis

Treatment: aggressive periodontal disease and chronic periodontal disease have the same treatment, but people who suffer from aggressive periodontal disease have a greater chance of requiring surgery.  It is difficult to halt this form of disease, but the dentist will carry out antimicrobial, root planing, scaling, and sometimes laser procedures in a bid to save valuable bone and tissue.

Periodontal Disease Relating to Systemic Conditions

Periodontal disease can occur as a symptom of a disease that affects the whole body. The disease, depending on the underlying condition, can come in the form of aggressive periodontal disease, rapidly destroying tissue. Respiratory disease, diabetes, and heart disease seem to be the most common cofactors, though numerous others exist. Even in situations where the teeth are covered by plague, several medical conditions can facilitate the progression of periodontal disease.

Treatment: initially, the medical issue that led to the periodontal disease must be addressed. The dentist stops the disease from progressing by adopting the same treatment used in the control of chronic and aggressive periodontal disease.

Necrotizing Periodontal Disease: This condition has a rapid progression and is common among people who have HIV, chronic stress, immunosuppression, malnutrition or who are smokers. Necrosis (tissue death) often affects the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, and gingival tissues.

Treatment: Necrotizing periodontal disease is a condition that is very rare. Because it may be connected with HIV or other serious medical issues, the dentist will likely work with the physician before any treatment. The methods used in treating this form of disease include medicated mouthwash, Scaling, and fungicidal medicines, root planning, and antibiotic pills.

For concerns or questions about various forms of periodontal disease and treatments, please consult your dentist.

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